RISK MANAGEMENT IN THE COMPANIES

Autori članka: 
Vladimir Čolović
Godina izdavanja članka: 
2015
Broj u godini: 
2
Apstrak članka: 

RISK MANAGEMENT IN THE COMPANIES
Summary: The risk is a future and uncertain event, that is, from the standpoint of the company, an event that can cause damage. It is therefore of great importance to the companies to properly assess the risk, to determine its type, the consequences of the realization of the risk, as well as methods of protection against this risk. The realization of the risk depends, primarily, on its nature. The risk can be multiplied, making it harder to control. Risk controland possibility to infl uence of its realization is one of the most complex operations, not just for insurance companies, but, also, for all subjects in society. Th e risk always threatens, no matter what consists and when and where it can achieve. It is very hard to defi ne the types of risk, considering that risks have more characteristics. But the most important is to determine whether a risk, that is, its realization may be transferred to another person (insurer) or not. In other words, does one company has suffi cient funds to “cover” the realization of a risk or not. The companies possess assets that may be suffi cient that the individual risks „reduce“. Also, many of the risks can be controlled or eliminated by the changing of activities or by reducing the number of employees, etc. In any case, the paper points out three methods of risk control by a company - a legal entity. Th ese are: the method of damage control, the method of funding of damages and method of internal reduction of risk. On the other hand, risk control will be implemented successfully if company choose the way, that will lead to eff ective risk management. These methods are diff erent depending on whether the risk is controlled by a company or any other person. Th ese methods are: a) risk management by the company, which it does by creating its own funds; b) transfer of risk to the insurance company, which is the simplest way; c) creating conditions by the insurance companies that successfully cover risks; and d) transfer of part of the risk between the co-insurers or insurers to reinsurers, respectively, transfer of insurance portfolio. As we can see, when we talk about risk management must, we must, also, talk about the conclusion of an insurance contract of these risks. Also, this paper pays attention to the Directive EU „Solvency II“. Th e challenge for European insurance companies is the EU Directive no. 2009/138/EC, which is commonly known as “Solvency II”. In the light of new changes of the regulations, the insurers are faced with two problems. On the one hand, they must ensure full compliance with the Solvency II Directive, while, on the other hand, there are the new business and fi nancial opportunities, that the new circumstances and new regulation in this area brings. Given the complexity and importance of the new regulation, it will be diffi cult in the short term identify and exploit the new strategic opportunities. However, if we look at long term, the quality goal setting and successful implementation of risk management system will enable a big step forward compared to the competition, in relation to other insurance companies, as well as in relation to the insurance market as a whole. This, after all, requires a Solvency II Directive. The deadline for implementation of this Directive is January 2016. In conclusion, the author states that for one company, first of all, it is essential the correct defi nition of risk management methods.
Key words: risk, damage, company, insurance, „Solvency II“

UPRAVLJANJE RIZIKOM U PRIVREDNIM DRUŠTVIMA
Rizik je budući i neizvesni događaj, odnosno, sa stanovišta privrednog društva, događaj koji može da izazove štetu. Zbog toga je od velike važnosti za privredno društvo da pravilno proceni rizik, da odredi njegovu vrstu, posledice koje bi izazvale njegovo ostvarenje, kao i metode zaštite od tog rizika. Ostvarenje rizika zavisi, na prvom mestu, od njegove prirode. Rizik se može i umnožavati, što otežava njegovu kontrolu. Kontrola rizika i mogućnost uticaja na njegovo ostvarenje, predstavlja jedan od najsloženijih poslova, ne samo privrednih društava, već i svih subjekata u jednom društvu. Rizik uvek preti, bez obzira iz čega se sastoji i kada se i gde može ostvariti. Veoma teško je definisati vrste rizika, obzirom da rizici imaju više osobina. No, najvažnije je odrediti da li se neki rizik, odnosno, njegovo ostvarenje može preneti na neko drugo lice (osiguravača) ili ne. Drugim rečima, da li jedno privredno društvo ima dovoljno sredstava da „pokrije“ ostvarenje rizika ili ne. Privredna društva poseduju sredstva koja mogu biti dovoljna da se pojedini rizici „smanje“. Isto tako, mnogi rizici se mogu kontrolisati ili eliminisati promenom delatnosti ili smanjenjem broja zaposlenih, itd. U svakom slučaju, u radu se izdvajaju tri metoda kontrole rizika od strane privrednog društva - pravnog lica. To su: metod kontrole šteta, metod finansiranja šteta i metod interne redukcije rizika. Sa druge strane, kontrola rizika će se uspešno sprovesti, ako se izabere i način koji će dovesti do efikasnog upravljanja tim rizikom. Ti načini su različiti u zavisnosti od toga, da li rizik kontroliše privredno društvo ili neko drugo lice. Ti načini su: a) upravljanje rizikom od strane privrednog društva, koje to čini stvaranjem sopstvenih fondova; b) transfer rizika na osiguravajuće društvo, što je najjednostavniji način; c) stvaranje uslova od strane osiguravajućih društava koji uspešno pokrivaju rizike; i d) prenos dela rizika između saosiguravača ili sa osiguravača na reosiguravača, odnosno, prenos portfelja osiguranja. Kao što se vidi, kad se govori o upravljanju rizikom, mora se govoriti i o zaključenju ugovora o osiguranju ovih rizika. U ovom radu se posvećuje pažnja i Direktivi EU „Solventnost II“. U zaključku autor navodi da je za jedno privredno društvo, pre svega, bitno pravilno definisanje metoda upravljanja rizikom.
Ključne reči: rizik, šteta, privredno društvo, osiguranje, „Solventnost II“.